What is the difference between



are the distinguishing
markings on the letters to enable the person to make the proper
pronunciation of the letters.

As for الإعجام
then those are the following letters containing dots over or beneath them – of which the Arabs in the first Days of Ignorance, those during our Prophet’s time, nor those living in the first 3 Caliphs time had no needed of in those days because the Arabs were naturally able to understand and pronounce the letters and words without the agency of these markings. They are as follows:

(ب – ت – ث – ج – خ – ذ – ز – ش – ض – ظ – غ – ف -ق – ن – ي )

As for الحركات
then – and Allah knows best – are the vowels that over and under the letters that cause the letters ” to move” i.e.

ُ  ِ َ

As Islam began to spread and the non-Arabic speaking people embraced Islam and began to intermingle with the Arabs many gross errors, and corruptions began to enter with them. Thus – and as a protection for the Book of Allah, the Pure Sunnah and the Arabic Language these means to reach the desired goal – keeping things pure and pristine – were introduced which was primarily an order from the Fourth Caliph, Ali. Such methods are called الوسيلة and Allah knows best!